BIBLIOGRAPHY AND OTHER RESOURCES
Rob Pramann, Ph.D.
make no claim that this bibliography is comprehensive or necessarily
current. It represents materials that I have read and studied. It includes
my brief summary and review of books on Moreno, his ideas, and closely
related ideas in the hope that it may guide students of the psychodramatic
approach to materials of interest to them. It lists only one primary
source or example of Moreno's original work, an anthology of Moreno's
writings. Moreno's many asides, lack of a systematic explication of
his theory, and philosophical and literary background which is quite
different from that which is common to most in America, makes getting
to know him and his approach through his writings a challenge. No one
has summarized his ideas and theoretical framework to my satisfaction.
His early writings were deeply and profoundly philosophical, theological,
and mystical. He did not emphasize that aspect of his thinking after
coming to America in 1925. Yet understanding those underlying ideas
provides a valuable illumination and insight to the approach and techniques
he developed. At the same time, Moreno's early writing are as of one
inspired, full of Biblical allusions and envisioning a religious revolution.
Though I do not agree with many of his ideas, I look forward to doing
an annotated Bibliography of his writings is the future and a summary
of his ideas and theory.
Society for Group Psychotherapy and Psychodrama. (n.d.) General
about Psychodrama Retrieved March 13, 2005, from
This book does not focus on psychodrama per se but on related ideas
that may be of interest to the psychodrama trainee.
A. (1996). Acting in: Practical applications of psychodramatic
Ed. New York: Springer.
of the best introductory texts on the details of the psychodramatic
This book focuses on the history of psychodrama including its slow
acceptance, philosophical foundations, psychological foundations,
social implications, and practical implications. I take exception
with some of Blatner’s
interpretations and thinking yet this volume provides valuable background
for the novice psychodramatist.
lists her experiential games and exercises for individuals and groups,
adults and children, in the counseling office, classroom, or at home,
giving clear directions, and identifying variations for particular
needs. She seeks to address issues related to growing up in alcoholic
and dysfunctional environments.
attempts to make psychodramatic theory and technique accessible, discussing
its origins, step-by step-methods to safely structure drama games
for a wide variety of clients and situations, and explores the growing
use of the method in the addictions field. In particular she addresses
the treatment of addiction, ACOAs, and trauma.
T. (2003). Psychodrama in the resolution of trauma and grief.
The magazine for addiction professionals, 4 (2), 33-39. Also available
line at http://www.counselormagazine.com
short article cogently describes the traumatic memory, the frequent
connection with addictions, the effectiveness of psychodrama/action
methods in addressing both, and gives some brief but specific examples
of these methods.
J. L. (Ed.). (1987). The essential Moreno. New York: Springer.
volume contains a compendium of Moreno’s original works abridged
and organized to provide a concise overview to Moreno and his method.
This is significant because Moreno s writings often were repetitious
and include lengthy ‘‘asides."
this volume the author’s excitement about and scholarly interest
in both the history and contemporary forms of nonscripted theatre
is quite apparent. Particular attention is given to oral theatre
and the author’s contemporary version of that form, playback
theatre. The nuances of that form are articulated here.
book is the result of a forum at the 44th Annual meeting of the American
Society for Group Psychotherapy and Psychodrama in 1986 and the felt
need for this kind of book. It contains a variety of ideas on the
application of psychodrama to addiction issues. I found parts of this
volume useful; the quality of the different sections was uneven.
book describes the psychodramatic method Elaine Goldman developed
which she now calls “FACT” or Focused ACTion. A fellow
student dubbed her method “laser psychodrama” because
of the abbreviation and conciseness her refinements effect for the
purpose of making it easier to learn and easier to use with patients.
I experience her approach as leaving out some of the heart and soul
of the method and fear it could be confusing to students learning
the more traditional version. A lasting contribution of this work
is the Goldman’s explication and illustration of the psychodramatic
E. E. (Director), Morrison, D. E., & Goldman, S. G. (1987).
A training tape. Phoenix, AZ: Eldemar [Videotape].
from Elaine Eller Goldman, 1411 E. Orangewood Ave., #134,
Phoenix, AZ 85020)
training tape includes a professionally edited session with a recovering
alcoholic/ACOA, director’s comments, transitions, and process,
tracking on the psychodramatic spiral, and study guide containing
a transcription of the tape.
once referred to Hale, a librarian by training, as “the Librarian
of the Gods” because of her interest and expertise in this area.
This book is indisputably the best introduction to sociometry. However,
Hale is in the process of revising it and is also editing an anthology
of articles on sociometry.
book presents a single psychodrama session and then illustrates, chapter
by chapter, relevant basic psychoanalytical concepts in action.
collection has in common the application of psychodrama to clients
whose problems and psychological difficulties make them difficult
to help: adolescents, the learning disabled, a blended family, sexually
abused young people and adults, disturbed adolescents, an anorexic,
alcoholics, ACOAs and codependents, hard core offenders, and suffers
of serious illness.
authors creatively extend and elaborate Moreno’s approach and
thought. They sketch out the “therapeutic space” that
Moreno’s approach covers, from the conscious to the unconscious
and the intrapsychic to the transpersonal or spiritual. They implicitly
raise the issue of how far an approach that emphasizes spontaneity
and creativity can evolve before it becomes something different. They
both shed light and obscure. The process of understanding Moreno is
yet in its adolescence.
outlines her variation and elaboration of psychodrama developed specifically
to guard the vulnerability of trauma victims. She has developed an
organization that teaches the method on an international basis.
volume systematizes and clarifies the fundamental theoretical and
practical aspects of psychodrama as well as setting aside old myths
and breaking new ground. His experience with the method, grasp of
the psychotherapy literature, philosophical insight, and ability to
innovate are apparent.
editors, noted psychodramatists, have put together a wide ranging
anthology of articles on trauma with a wide range of populations and
problems including bereavement, rape, torture, abused children, addiction,
sex offenders, dissociation, traffic accidents, and secondary victims.
presents his idea of separating Moreno’s role playing methods
from the rest of his approach to create a generic role playing method.
His evaluation of the different “role playing techniques”
is of particular interest because of his discussion of indications
and contraindications of their use. Of all others only Leveton begins
to address this issue. Kipper believes his approach will make these
methods more acceptable to persons not trained in psychodrama. I felt
much was lost.
succinctly describes psychodrama and it’s application to addictive
issues within a residential program. (In Oct. 2000 Professional Counselor
became Counselor, The magazine for addiction professionals.)
discusses ethical issues relevant to the use of psychodrama and experiential
psychotherapy, particularly group in contrast to individual treatment,
therapist competence, leader power issues, and aftercare. He makes
reference to the American Psychological Association’s “Ethical
Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct” and the “Association
for Specialists in Group Work Best Practice Guidelines.”
is true of most group therapies and psychodrama in particular there
are few attempts to study demonstrating effectiveness of these methods.
This practitioner and scholar’s contribution is particularly
author writes as from outside the general psychodrama collective,
a nonconformist and rebel of sorts but acknowledges her delight in
being recognized by Zerka Moreno in the forward. Some of her ideas
are inconsistent with generally accepted psychodramatic methodology
but her perspective on the method as one from outside the main stream
is valuable. I specifically appreciated her thoughts on indications
and contraindications for certain techniques.
R. F. (1989). Jacob Levi Moreno, 1889-1974. New York: Routledge.
many reasons this is the first biography of J.L. Moreno and psychodrama
and contains a number of surprises. It will enrich one's understanding
and practice of Moreno s methods.
author is a professing liberal Christian who has training in psychodrama.
His presentation of bibliodrama here is rather directive, dogmatic,
and less developed than others. He has some unique ideas on how dramatic
methods may be used.
text is written by a practitioner with a very active outpatient group
practice who uses psychodrama as one of her tools. It includes a discusson
of grouop therapy as well as psychodrama.
work is autobiographical, describing how the author came to terms
with his Jewish heritage, and an example of the deep and personal
learning Bibliodrama can inspire. Though some of his ideas may be
controversial to some he offers much one can learn from and appreciate.
Throughout his writing he is clear and vibrant. He is an accomplished
writer and poet. His work is a joy to read.
work is the best one on the method of Bibliodrama per se. The author
clearly describes and illustrates his well honed techniques and ideas.
He differentiates an approach that is text or study focused and a
second that is personal or therapy focused. He also identifies a short
form (where beginners can start) and a longer form of the method.
author knows playback intimately as one of the original playback troupe
and partner of the leader of that group, Jonathan Fox. Her book serves
as a good general introduction to this approach. She acknowledges
its similarity to Moreno’s spontaneity theatre which ultimately
developed into psychodrama.
uses enactment to focus on group as opposed to individual issues using
an educational as opposed to therapeutic thrust but like psychodrama
deals with thoughts and feelings and often deep emotions. Sociodrama
is more commonly practiced outside the US perhaps because this is
the first book on the subject since 1949. This book is a valuable
resource since on some occasions a psychodrama warm-up may more appropriately
lead to a sociodrama.
short volume is especially for those who do not envision themselves
directing a psychodrama group but who would like to use it as part
of their individual sessions. It contains some me good ideas.
author indicts psychodrama for being full of sound and fury but signifying
nothing. He presents his alternative, “strategic psychodrama.”
I found this difficult reading because I do not agree with his main
thesis but found his other ideas helpful.
volume is an often-recommended basic book on psychodrama originally
published in 1981. Yablonsky writes in an interesting narrative style
that captures the spirit of psychodrama though some of the practical
and theoretical details are sketchy.
Board annually publishes a booklet listing certified trainers and practitioners
and the current certification standards for each along with detailed
information on pursuing certification. These standards can also be found
at the ASGPP website.
is the national professional organization for practitioners of psychodrama.
They publish The International Journal of Action Methods: Psychodrama,
Skill Training, and Role Playing, and a newsletter; organize an annual
conference; and host a web site. The website has many helpful features
including a comprehensive searchable bibliography with over 5,000 entries.
Health Resources (http://www.abebooks.com/home/111831)
distributes psychodrama texts and is the easiest and oftentimes least
expensive way to obtain materials on psychodrama. In their last flyer
48 items were listed as in stock.
Gill has developed a website, which includes "What is Psychodrama?
An interactive resource" that explains many key concepts in psychodrama.
The resource presents a menu of definitions, each of which are downloadable,
and includes a lengthy list of warm-ups the author has developed or